The Philippine Air Force’s “Flight Plan 2028”

The title page of the Philippine Air Force's "Flight Plan 2018" Presentation
The title page of the Philippine Air Force’s “Flight Plan 2018” Presentation

The Philippine Air Force (PhAF) recently released on their official website (at a presentation called, “Philippine Air Force Flight Plan 2028”(the original link is here). The presentation was noted as having been originally presented during the “AFP Governance Exposition 2014” last December 17, 2014 at the AFPCOC CGEA (whatever that means) Main Restaurant.

The document is a unique treat for us civilians as it outlined the GOALS, PROCUREMENT and TRAINING PLANS (among other things) of the PhAF in a nice-looking, well-made and relatively easy to understand format. Hence I have decided to SUMMARIZE some of the more important points of that presentation on this blog.

The PhAF outlined TIME-BOUNDED GOALS in the document, the most important of which would be acquire the ability to DETECT, IDENTIFY, INTERCEPT and NEUTRALIZE INTRUSIONS in what it describes as “Area Readiness (AR) 3 and 4” around the Philippines by 2022. The AR3 and AR4 areas cover around 74% of the Philippines’ territory including all of Luzon, most of the Visayas and most parts of our claimed territories in the West Philippine Sea (WPS).
PhAF 2028 -2022 Goal

By 2028, though, the PhAF aims to expand this coverage to ALL or 100% of the Philippines’ territories (or what it calls “AR3” to “AR1”) in a protective air cover.
PhAF 2028 - 2028 Goal

’Procurement Plans’
The PhAF intends to achieve these goals thru the PLANNED procurement of aircraft, weapons and equipment (in addition to the ones that they had already procured recently) from 2016 to 2022.
PhAF 2028 - Planned Purchases

A breakdown of some of the more important procurements are as follows:

* Surface Attack Aircraft (SAA) / Lead Fighter Trainer Aircraft (LFTA) – These are Advanced Trainer aircraft with secondary role as a Light Combat Aircraft similar to the FA-50 Fighting Eagle aircraft which we already bought twelve of and which will all arrive by 2017. An additional twelve SAA/LFTA are planned to be procured by 2020, and these will very likely be FA-50s also as it makes good sense to buy the same aircraft for easier and cheaper logistical support. It is possible that the PhAF will go for a more advanced version of the FA-50, whatever will be available by 2020. This will bring the number of SAA/LFTA aircraft to 24.

* Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEWACs) – In simplest terms these are flying radar stations, designed to SUPPLEMENT the ground based radars that the PhAF is buying. Being in a fast, airborne platform makes these radars less vulnerable to enemy attack, and their coverage can also be extended at least for a limited amount of time since an aircraft can move around and travel great distances relatively quickly. Their airborne perspective also makes them better at spotting low-flying aircraft or missiles. These aircraft are very important in terms of having a good surveillance system for the country. Two are planned to be acquired by 2020.

* Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) Aircraft – A bit of a surprise as these are pretty sophisticated aircraft, and we’ve never had this type of aircraft before in our inventory. My guess is that one of its main tasks would be as support for our defending aircraft against enemy aircraft. This makes sense as Chinese Flanker aircraft have long range radars, which would be most especially true if China does acquire the SU-35 Flanker E (which I personally call, “The Beast”) whose Irbis-E radar range is claimed by its manufacturer as having a 400 km range for a target with 3 m^2 Radar Cross Section (RCS).[1] ECM aircraft on our side would help OFFSET the possible radar disadvantage of whatever fighter aircraft we might get by DEGRADING the enemy radar’s detection range, enabling our fighters to (hopefully) have a more “even” fight. Two are planned to be acquired by 2020 and another two by 2022.

* Aerial Refueling Aircraft – This will help extend the range of our aircraft, but since only one is planned to be acquired by 2021 then it will only have very limited support capability, being able to refuel only a maximum of three aircraft at a time.

* Multi-Role Fighter (MRF) Aircraft – These will be the most capable fighter aircraft in our PhAF inventory, better than the SAA/LFTA we are getting and their main task will be to defend our airspace. An informal survey by a local news organization a couple of years ago showed that Filipino pilots preferred the JAS-39 Gripen aircraft as the MRF for the PhAF,[2] but whether that materializes or not still remains to be seen, though. Four MRFs are planned to be acquired by 2021 plus another eight by 2022.

’Radar Systems’
The PhAF is also acquiring Air Defense Surveillance Radar Systems (ADSRS), the first three by 2016 will be situated in Mindoro, Ilocos Norte and Palawan, and if you will notice ALL these three will be directly facing the WPS where the threat is present as of now.
PhAF 2028 - Radar Sites

A bit of confusion here as the procurement plan calls for another three by 2020, but they listed the “Future Radar Sites” as four. It’s possible that the shortfall of one will be acquired beyond 2022 as the plan only reaches up to that year. Nevertheless, the three systems will be deployed mostly in the Central and Eastern Visayas areas, and one in Mindanao to cover the rest of the country not directly facing the WPS.

As for the first three radar systems, the respected publication “IHS Jane’s” says that these will likely be the Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) EL/M-2288 AD-STAR.[3] If so, it is a medium to long range radar system which is relatively compact and mobile, allowing it to be moved from one place to another via air or ground, improving its survivability. It has a maximum range of from 300 to 430 km, depending whether we are getting the medium or long range model.[4]

’Surface to Air Missiles’
Another system in the plan for procurement are Ground Based Air Defense System (GBADS) which will likely come in the form of Surface to Air Missile (SAM) systems, at least if want something that will be most effective in deterring enemy aircraft or missiles. An initial three is planned to be procured as soon as 2016, plus another three are planned to be procured by 2020.

These SAMs will likely be used to PROTECT the ground-based mobile Radar Systems mentioned above, they are about the same number as the SAMs and the radars would be PRIORITY targets by enemy aircraft and/or missiles in the event of war.

The local media reports two SAM systems being considered: The Israeli SpyDer[5] and American Hawk XXI systems.[6] The Spyder has short and medium range versions[7] while the Hawk XXI has an older MIM-23 and a newer AMRAAM version, both of which are medium range systems.[8] The reports did not specifically mention which models were being considered, but personally I would prefer to go with the medium range versions, and overall I am leaning towards the MIM-23 Hawk XXI despite its older design simply because it has the flexibility of being able to intercept ballistic missiles also, something which the other systems do not have.

Aside from the purchase of weapons, weapons platforms and other equipment, the plan also outlines an ENHANCED Training Program for the PhAF to not only be able to operate their equipment, but also operate them well in actual combat by participating in sophisticated multi-national or “Combined Training Exercises (CTE)”.
PhAF 2028 - Trainings

Right now the PhAF is involved in “Joint Military Exercises” mostly with the United States in annual exercises like the “Balikatan”, but not much in terms of CTEs. The CTEs which the PhAF intends to participate are as follows:

* Cobra Gold – The PhAF plans to join this CTE by 2018. This is an annual military exercise held in Thailand and is said to be the largest military exercise in the Asia-Pacific region, participated in by dozens of countries and involving over 10,000 troops. This is a general exercise involving various branches of the armed forces of different countries like the Army, Navy and Air Force.[9]

* Pitch Black – Participation is planned by 2020. This is a biennial exercise held in Australia and participated in by more than half a dozen countries. This exercise only involves the Air Forces of various countries, and it covers the offensive and defensive aspects of Air Combat in a simulated environment.[10] This is very similar to the “Red Flag Exercise” (discussed below), but on a lesser scale.

* Red Flag – Participation by 2022. Various Red Flag Exercises are held every year in the United States, and it is perhaps the largest and most sophisticated Air Combat Exercise in the world right now, participated in by dozens of countries. It can be compared as like a “World Cup” of Air Forces, and provides about as close a simulation to an actual combat environment involving aircraft.[11]

As far as I can remember I can’t recall our country participating in any sophisticated Air Force focused CTEs like Pitch Black and Red Flag, so if this plan pushes thru it will be the first in decades. The Philippine Navy (PhN) is already ahead of the PhAF right now in that they have recently participated in Naval themed CTEs like “KAKADU” and “KOMODO”, but this is probably because they were able to acquire slightly better equipment ahead of the PhAF.

Most of the planned aircraft purchases will arrive only around 2020, with the MRFs scheduled to start arriving only on 2021, and I don’t think the PhAF brass will want the new aircraft to participate in such complex war exercises right away. The crew will need a couple of years’ experience and familiarity because there are some risks also involved, so we will be likely be using only the FA-50s for the CTEs from 2018 to 2022.

To be able to meet the planned purchases and trainings, the PhAF is asking for an ADDITIONAL budget of P364 Billion (roughly USD 8 Billion) for 7 years starting from this year (2015) up to 2022. That means on average an additional budget of P52 Billion (USD 1.1 Billion) per year.
PhAF 2028 - Budget

The budget in 2014 for the PhAF was around P12 Billion,[12] so the average annual modernization budget of P52 Billion is more than four (4) times that amount.

’Vision of the Future’
Based on the plan the PhAF presented, their VISION of the future would be something like this: The year is 2028, and the PhAF now has effective radar coverage of the entire Philippines using mobile, ground based ELM-2288 AD-STAR systems which are protected by equally mobile MIM-23 Hawk XXI SAMs. These radar stations are complemented by two AEWACs aircraft.

The skies are filled with two dozen modern FA-50 Fighting Eagles and a dozen more JAS-39 Gripen aircraft, supported by four ECM aircraft and one Aerial tanker. And our pilots and aircrews are continually honing their skills by participating regularly in some of the most sophisticated aerial war game exercises in the world. It is a bright future indeed, for our air force.

’Parting Shot’
The plan is very good, and presented in an excellent way, but in the end this is just a PLAN. Whether it gets realized or not depends A LOT on the next Administration, especially when you look at the COST involved to be able to meet that plan. For that to happen, the economy will have to continue to improve and the next President should have the INCLINATION and POLITICAL WILL to continue to support the AFP Modernization.

However, if a certain “Dark Lord” wins the Presidency, it is likely that this plan will just come into naught. His daughter in the Senate had already proclaimed her preference for the military to just buy equipment related to Humanitarian and Disaster Response (HADR) operations instead,[13] while the “Dark Lord” himself remains strangely silent about the modernization of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), not even mentioning it as among his plans during his first 100 days in office if elected President.[14]

This is probably one reason why if you noticed, the title extends all the way up to “2028”, but the actual plan itself is only up to 2022. The PhAF could be giving an allowance in case the next Administration (term of office is 2016-2022) does not provide the necessary support, then the plan could just be pushed back by another 6 years under the next Administration (term of office is from 2022-2028).

Nevertheless, I congratulate the PhAF for coming up with a detailed, well thought out plan for its modernization. Whatever happens beyond 2016, whoever is elected President, at least they are able to say that they did their job, they presented a solid plan on how they can do a better job of defending the country, and all that was needed was the EXECUTION. If the plan isn’t executed properly or isn’t implemented at all, then it’s out of their control.

Ultimately the realization of the PhAF’s plan will be decided by the Filipino people themselves, on who they will vote for President in 2016. It should be someone who will wholeheartedly support the AFP Modernization …


^[1] Irbis-E Radar,

^[2] Pilots eye Gripen fighter jet,

^[3] Philippines sets out capability upgrades at inaugural ADAS show,

^[4] AD-STAR Air Defense and Traffic Control Radar,

Click to access 41160.pdf

^[5] PH plans to tap Israel for missile launchers,

^[6] Gov’t eyes enhanced HAWK surface-to-air missiles,

^[7] Rafael SpyDer System,

Click to access 1201.pdf

^[8] Hawk XXI – Kongsberg,

^[9] US-Thailand Relations and Cobra Gold 2015: What’s Really Going On?,

^[10] Exercise Pitch Black Concludes in Darwin,

^[11] Red Flag Air Exercises,

^[12] Philippine Air Force 2014 Budget,

Click to access PAFBudget2014.pdf


^[14] Binay presents plans for ‘1st 100 days as president’,

20 thoughts on “The Philippine Air Force’s “Flight Plan 2028””

  1. This is a very good read and very informative, I just hope that this will all come true so that China will be contained and not repeat what the then Imperial Japan did in the past decades, absolute power corrupts absolutely and we can see China’s direction towards that. And the mere fact that we have some leftist congressmen and party-list AND also the Moro rebels AND ALSO the Dark Dynasties who is or maybe under the Communist Party of China’s payroll, the path towards modernization of our Armed Forces even our country will be an uphill battle. With regards to that “Dark Lord” I am quite disturbed by his stance regarding China (that they have money and we don’t) what the f*ck is he thinking? Another this is the PA Dark Lord who fails to see the importance of strong defense and military in a country, its ok to have humanitarian aids and disaster response, but does she know who does that? its mostly the MILITARY! So, if she is saying that the government should not prioritise defense et al. then remove the ARMED FORCES at all. Well, I am hoping that the Filipino people will be wise enough to vote someone who has integrity, strong and deeply rooted morals, patriotic, values the people and also the military,has a good conscience, an advocate for peace who doesn’t wage war but is always prepared for it. (screw experience!) how I wish.

  2. The PAF missed one important project in it’s Flight Plan 2028. It did not include the start of locally manufacturing our standard MRF and missile system through technology transfer. Negotiate with Northrop to locally manufacture it’s cancelled F-20 Tigershark (The more advanced version of the F-5) for a start just like what S. Korea did when it started manufacturing the F-16 before developing it’s own FA-50 Golden Eagle. For the missile system, negotiate with Raytheon Corp. to locally manufacture the MIN-23 Hawk missile system just like what India did with Russia when it procured the Brahmos system and started developing different variants of the missile. Our country is in imminent danger of engaging into a war against China so the AFP should pressure our government to provide our military the budget it requires. We already lost 7 reefs to China. Are we going to let China take the rest of our oil and marine rich KIG and Reed bank w/o a fight. It’s either we defend our sovereignty or forget about AFP modernization.

    1. Your Idea the most valued to me becauase procurement of those equipment from other nation sooner will just go to rotten better to have knowdlege of how to produce all that equipment to become ours forever..

    2. sir, i totally agree with your comments.
      sana AFP starts to make those necessary moves toward building capabilities. they should have another master plan for this.

      Go AFP!!!

  3. good plan and good project…the big question mark, will be the future president or congress will look into these matter seriously. we are sill 2015 but we already surrendered a big portion of our economic zone of the WPS to China. by 2020 if the situation will not be changed palawan will be completely surrounded. I think we cannot wait that long. The next president and congress will have to sit down. 2016 is the most crucial period in our history…to defend our territory is not really going to war. we have to modernized to put some equipments and people to the islands, islets, reefs or shoals not yet occupied by china. we must have the ships (guided missile frigates, patrol ships) and aircrafts (surveillance, MRFS) to patrol our territories.

    1. we really need those MRFs earlier as projected…also the missile frigates, land base anti ship missiles and ground to air missiles. Recent news are very accurate the Chinese are inching to our territory getting nearer to Palawan. The need for such new and modern equipment is not for offensive purposes but purely defensive for deterrence. If we only have ships on standby inside our economic zone and the quick response of the MRFs this would surely give the chinese second thoughts of intruding or occupying our territory. No need to put permanent structures just what the Chinese did, we have a lot of junk ships we can put on those reefs and shoals just like the Sierra Madre and put detachment of soldiers or marines. That alone will make it hard for the Chinese to force their will upon us.

      1. The MRFs won’t happen soon. Its a complicated procurement, and look how long it took PNoy to buy just two Frigates. With his Administration winding down, I don’t see the next Administration buying stuff for the AFP until 2-3 years into its term. Remember that it took PNoy around the same time to start buying stuff.

        However, based on the PhAF’s latest timeline, the procurement for the SAMs, FA-50 Weapons and LRPA will be completed in 1-2 months, so those will likely push thru.

        But from 2016 to 2017, we won’t likely see any major new procurement. We will just have to content ourselves waiting for the stuff PNoy bought to arrive during that time.

        As for the Chinese, if they keep denying everybody else the “Freedom of Navigation” that Uncle Sam holds so dearly, then let the US deal with them …

      2. whatever, our government must have some kind of strategy to at least stop the intrusion of the chinese in our territory. our case in the international tribunal is one of those strategies…but where still wanting for MRFs and ships. running aground an LST in Ayungin and putting a detachment of marines i think is one of the most effective strategy preventing an physical occupation of the chinese. we can put detachments in other areas, reefs and shoals with the same strategy. at least cost effective.

        it would be difficult we keep on waiting for the result of the international tribunal but we have already nothing to claim cause the chinese occupied it already. and i dont think political and economic pressure can evict the chinese. worse scenario only military solution can possibly evict them but i dont think the united states or U.N. will go to that extent.

        the chinese were able to read our mind…we are for peaceful resolution with no attempt to physically hinder them on their intention to occupy the areas under our economic zone. they, the chinese are smart. they themselves waiting for the decision of the international tribunal but since there is none yet as fast as possible they will continue to occupy the shoals and reefs in the WPS particularly the portion claim by the PHilippines which they dont see any resistance unlike the vietnamese who are not afraid to confront them.

    2. true, the next admin will play big roles in realizing this flight plan.
      just pray that “DARK LORD” will not reign over us.

  4. Oh thats good for our defense and we need a lot to acquire ,for me the best thing that we need is the fighters like F-16,F-35,or the F-22 raptor because this can attack in a better way air to air,and ground and also wee need nuclear missiles,artillery,SPGs,Attack helicopters.For navy we need a lot of warships,destroyers and submarines for our sovereignity to our country

  5. Una. This is a S.M.A.R.T. PhAF FP 2028. Solid, attainable and time-bound. Sad to know that the realization of these depends on our future Presidents starting in 2016.

    That’s why siguro President Noy approves this multi-year acquisition. Great foresight of the President! ( )

    And also, there is no mention of building/developing our own capabilities on these wares. But on second thought, perhaps the planned special defense economic zone in Mariveles addresses this concern. (Sir Rhk that SDEZ could be a good blog topic.)

    Pangalawa. Dark Lord is so witty. Hehehe. I’m tempted to add that by calling him (whoever is he) the Short Dark Lord!

    Panghuli. Impressive blog as always sir Rhk. Very well-thought out. Good job!

    1. Thanks, Harry. As for the blog suggestion, I’ll consider it, but no promises at this point.

      Now, as for the Multi-Year Acquisition program, I can’t find a lot of references about it, but as of now, my GUESS here would be something like this:
      – If the Contract for these acquisitions are not signed within PNoy’s term, then it may be possible for the next Administration to just cancel it outright if they want to.
      – If the Contract for these are signed within PNoy’s term, then it will be harder for the next Administration to cancel it. It may still be possible for them to cancel it, especially if the first payment is not released. And also if they find some irregularities or technicality issues.

      So if the contracts are signed by PNoy, these is a better margin of safety there. Anyway, just IMHO …

  6. I think we should speed this up and ask Uncle Sam for F-16’s especially with EDCA now in, maybe 36 used F-16’s that we can upgrade later, along with 24 FA-50’s will make people think twice about entering our airspace,we should also reactivate maybe 6 F-5’s and get some more from Korea maybe another 6 or even 18 and have them upgraded to E variant for total of:

    36 F-16C’s
    12 F-5E’s
    24 FA-50’s

    1. That’s a good question. It could possibly be for redundancy, so there will still be radar coverage if one or more of the other sites goes down for some reason.

      It seems the radar coverage plan already covers the entire Philippines including Mindanao if fully implemented.

  7. ECM aircraft? Perhaps the likes of EA-18G Growler…I wonder how formidable our territorial defense if we have few squadrons of F-15E/F, EA-18G and JAS-39 in our arsenal…US should spare us few F-15s and EA-18G if they think we are a major ally in the Southeast Asia, not to mention the strategic importance of the Philippines in this part of the world…

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.